Ph.D. (Free University. Amsterdam, the Netherlands;1972): Biophysics: biological repair of DNA damaged by gamma radiation.
MSc (Free University. Amsterdam; 1967); Animal physiology as major, with biochemistry & biophysics as minors.
Chemical analyst (Analistenschool. Amsterdam; 1961): Practical courses at Philips Duphar, Weesp (the Netherlands).
High school (Christelijk Lyceum, Zwolle; 1960)
Informal studies through reading and practicing, and thanks to collaboration with and inspiration by Prof. Dr. Ir. C.T. de Wit, the father of modeling and simulation in agriculture: Environment & development.